History

Facts, figures and historical battles from around the world

THE ATOMIC AND ELECTRONIC AGE , 1935 INTO THE 21 ST CENTURY

After the mid-1930s, the advances, of science and technology went rapidly hand in hand, with popular awareness of the changes heightened by spectacular developments in weaponry and in “weapons platforms.” The predictions of Lewis Mumford, made in 1934, that the “neotechnic” age would see multiple cases of science producing technologies and technologies leading to further… read more »

THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION , 1791 TO 1890

Many of the major laws of nature that were discovered in the 19th century derived from the observation of already invented devices and their behavior rather than from the use of instruments to observe purely natural events, the process that had characterized the scientific advances of the 17th and 18th centuries. The laws of thermodynamics,… read more »

THE AGE OF SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION , 1600 TO 1790

The Age of Scientific Revolution can be dated from the early 1600s through about the end of the 18th century. As the ideas of scientific method were carried into the social and political sphere, the effect became known as the “enlightenment.” Textbooks in Western civilization sometimes divide this 200-year period into the 17th century, as… read more »

Zhu De (Chu Teh)

(1886–1976) Chinese Communist military leader Zhu De was the founder of the Red Army (later, People’s Liberation Army) and its de facto leader in the resistance against Japan and in the Chinese civil war against the Nationalists during the 1930s and 1940s. He played an important role in the development of a theory of guerrilla… read more »

Zionism

From the beginning of the 20th century to the establishment of Israel in 1948, the World Zionist Organization (WZO) struggled to create a Jewish state in Palestine. After Theodor Herzl, the father of modern Zionism, died in 1904, Chaim Weizmann assumed leadership of the WZO for most of the following three decades. A moderate, Weizmann… read more »

World War II

The eventful years between September 1, 1939, and September 2, 1945, form a landmark in world history. From the march of the German war machine into Poland to the Japanese surrender, the world witnessed the most destructive war in human history, fought on land, in the air, and on the sea worldwide. The causes of… read more »

Xi’an (Sian) incident (1936)

The Long March (1934–35) severely damaged the Chinese Communists, who continued to fight from their new base in northern Sha’anxi (Shensi) province in northwestern China. Pursuing his policy of “first domestic pacification, then resisting Japan,” Chiang Kaishek, leader of the Nationalist government, appointed Zhang Xueliang (Chang Hsueh-liang), the ousted warlord of Manchuria, and his Manchurian… read more »

Yalta Conference (1945)

The Yalta Conference, also called the Crimea Conference or the Argonaut Conference, was a meeting of the leaders of the Grand Alliance in World War II. The meeting took place from February 4 until February 11, 1945, in Yalta in the Soviet Union. The Grand Alliance included the countries of the United States, the United… read more »

Yamagata Aritomo

(1838–1922) Japanese political leader Yamagata Aritomo was a Japanese politician who was prime minister on two occasions (1889–91 and 1898– 1900) and an elder statesman during the first decades of the 20th century, when he played an important role as an adviser to other politicians. Born in Hagi in the town of Choshu, he was… read more »

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