History

Facts, figures and historical battles from around the world

THE ATOMIC AND ELECTRONIC AGE , 1935 INTO THE 21 ST CENTURY

After the mid-1930s, the advances, of science and technology went rapidly hand in hand, with popular awareness of the changes heightened by spectacular developments in weaponry and in “weapons platforms.” The predictions of Lewis Mumford, made in 1934, that the “neotechnic” age would see multiple cases of science producing technologies and technologies leading to further… read more »

THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION , 1791 TO 1890

Many of the major laws of nature that were discovered in the 19th century derived from the observation of already invented devices and their behavior rather than from the use of instruments to observe purely natural events, the process that had characterized the scientific advances of the 17th and 18th centuries. The laws of thermodynamics,… read more »

THE AGE OF SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION , 1600 TO 1790

The Age of Scientific Revolution can be dated from the early 1600s through about the end of the 18th century. As the ideas of scientific method were carried into the social and political sphere, the effect became known as the “enlightenment.” Textbooks in Western civilization sometimes divide this 200-year period into the 17th century, as… read more »

Zhu De (Chu Teh)

(1886–1976) Chinese Communist military leader Zhu De was the founder of the Red Army (later, People’s Liberation Army) and its de facto leader in the resistance against Japan and in the Chinese civil war against the Nationalists during the 1930s and 1940s. He played an important role in the development of a theory of guerrilla… read more »

Zionism

From the beginning of the 20th century to the establishment of Israel in 1948, the World Zionist Organization (WZO) struggled to create a Jewish state in Palestine. After Theodor Herzl, the father of modern Zionism, died in 1904, Chaim Weizmann assumed leadership of the WZO for most of the following three decades. A moderate, Weizmann… read more »

Washington Conference and Treaties (1921–1922)

In 1921 President Warren Harding of the United States called an international conference in Washington, D.C., and invited representatives of Great Britain, France, Italy, Japan, China, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Portugal to attend. The issues at hand were a looming naval race between the United States and Japan, the uneasiness felt by Great Britain and… read more »

Weimar Republic

The term most commonly used for the government of Germany from 1919 until 1933, named after the town in central Germany where its constitution was drafted, the Weimar Republic was Germany’s first experiment with a liberal democratic government. Throughout its existence the Weimar Republic faced almost constant attacks from the radical left and radical right… read more »

Chaim Weizmann

(1874–1952) Zionist leader, first president of Israel Chaim Weizmann was one of the founders of the modern state of Israel. Born in Motol (now in Belarus) when it was under Russian rule, Weizmann studied chemistry in Switzerland, where he met his future wife, Vera Chatzman, a medical student. In 1904 they moved to England, where… read more »

Woodrow Wilson

(1856–1924) U.S. president Thomas Woodrow Wilson was born in Staunton, Virginia, in 1856. Wilson’s father, a Presbyterian minister, moved the family during the Civil War to Georgia, where his son witnessed the devastation wrought upon the South by Northern troops; this left a lifetime impression on him. Wilson graduated from the College of New Jersey… read more »

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