History

Facts, figures and historical battles from around the world

THE ATOMIC AND ELECTRONIC AGE , 1935 INTO THE 21 ST CENTURY

After the mid-1930s, the advances, of science and technology went rapidly hand in hand, with popular awareness of the changes heightened by spectacular developments in weaponry and in “weapons platforms.” The predictions of Lewis Mumford, made in 1934, that the “neotechnic” age would see multiple cases of science producing technologies and technologies leading to further… read more »

THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION , 1791 TO 1890

Many of the major laws of nature that were discovered in the 19th century derived from the observation of already invented devices and their behavior rather than from the use of instruments to observe purely natural events, the process that had characterized the scientific advances of the 17th and 18th centuries. The laws of thermodynamics,… read more »

THE AGE OF SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION , 1600 TO 1790

The Age of Scientific Revolution can be dated from the early 1600s through about the end of the 18th century. As the ideas of scientific method were carried into the social and political sphere, the effect became known as the “enlightenment.” Textbooks in Western civilization sometimes divide this 200-year period into the 17th century, as… read more »

Zhu De (Chu Teh)

(1886–1976) Chinese Communist military leader Zhu De was the founder of the Red Army (later, People’s Liberation Army) and its de facto leader in the resistance against Japan and in the Chinese civil war against the Nationalists during the 1930s and 1940s. He played an important role in the development of a theory of guerrilla… read more »

Zionism

From the beginning of the 20th century to the establishment of Israel in 1948, the World Zionist Organization (WZO) struggled to create a Jewish state in Palestine. After Theodor Herzl, the father of modern Zionism, died in 1904, Chaim Weizmann assumed leadership of the WZO for most of the following three decades. A moderate, Weizmann… read more »

Zaghlul, Sa’d

(1860–1927) and Safia Zaghlul (d. 1946) Egyptian nationalist leaders Sa’d Zaghlul was the founder and leader of the Wafd Party, the leading nationalist party in Egypt after World War i. Zaghlul was born in the Delta area and was a scholarship student at al-Azhar University. He was influenced by the reformers Jamal al-Din al-Afghani and… read more »

Emiliano Zapata

(1879–1919) Mexican revolutionary leader Ranking high in the pantheon of Latin American heroes, the Mexican revolutionary Emiliano Zapata gained widespread popular acclaim for his uncompromising demand for “Land and Liberty” (Tierra y Libertad) and for his courageous, principled, and shrewd leadership of his Zapatista army during the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920). During the revolution and after,… read more »

Zelaya, José Santos

(1853–1919) Nicaraguan leader The president of Nicaragua from 1893 to 1909, José Santos Zelaya was leader of the Liberal Party in Nicaragua for many years and a critic of U.S. foreign policy in the region. Zelaya was born on November 1, 1853, and on May 20, 1893, he became one of the three members of… read more »

Washington Conference and Treaties (1921–1922)

In 1921 President Warren Harding of the United States called an international conference in Washington, D.C., and invited representatives of Great Britain, France, Italy, Japan, China, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Portugal to attend. The issues at hand were a looming naval race between the United States and Japan, the uneasiness felt by Great Britain and… read more »

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