City in E Netherlands, on the IJssel River. Chartered in 1191, it was an important stronghold of the Spanish during the 16th-century Dutch struggle for independence. Sir Philip Sidney was wounded and died here in 1586 while serving with his uncle, the earl of Leicester, during the campaign to take the town from Spain. The Dutch captured it in 1591 under Maurice of Nassau. France held it in 1672– 73 and again from 1795 to 1813. It was occupied by Germany during World War II. Noteworthy buildings include a 12th-century Gothic church, 14th- and 15th-century fortifications, and the Grote Kerk of the 13th to 15th centuries. Gerard of Zutphen, a leader of the Devotio Moderna reform movement and the Brethren of the Common Life, was born here.